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从“价值自由”到“历史个体”——对韦伯社会科学学说的初步讨论

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英文标题:

From “Value Freedom” to “ Historical Individuality ”:A study on Max Weber' s theories of social science

摘要: 本文通过详细考察韦伯核心的科学学说文本,认为在韦伯的科学学说中,价值的自由形态之所以不同于价值的自然正当性,是因为其必须借助科学这一“中间性的世界”来成全,因此价值的自由形态和科学作为价值与伦理的中间世界是同时出现的。从上述社会科学面临的根本处境出发,本文接下来讨论了韦伯社会科学的第一次奠基,即将经验正当性落在了价值观念上的意涵。这一奠基致使韦伯那里“价值自由”的社会科学对种种带有“客体化”色彩的理论追求(“自然主义”和“精神化”)进行了相应的批判,从而走向了以意义问题为核心的“历史个体”与“理想类型”。这一过程的实质问题在于,意义问题更直接地放在了“人造物”上(理想类型),社会科学因此以某种二律背反的形式表明深刻的自由人格设定。这也是韦伯社会科学的第二次奠基,即人格奠基的意涵。
英文摘要:

This thesis begins with the dualism of science and conscience in Imperial Germany since 1870s conceptualized by Georg Simmel .This dualism extends into Leo Strauss' s critique of the impotence of modern social science , which , to Strauss, is typical of Max Weber' s as well as other modern social thoughts .According to Strauss, the rationale of “ value-freedom” not only proves an intrinsic paradox within social sciences but endangers the natural rights of values by founding them on the frail but fantastic selfpersistence of free will.Owing to Strauss' sinsightful critique, the paper anchors the study of Max Weber on his works on social sciences (methodology pieces)and the intense reading and commentaries of Weber' s work reveal that Weber' s thesis on value freedom derives from his conception of the separation of ethic and value spheres.Weber' s emphasis on the frail self-sufficiency of both ethic and values confirms that the primary , in this thesis the first , founding of social sciences must be on a more delicate refutation of evident legitimacy of value hierarchy in a pre-scientific world and thus be on the free form of value ideas. Following Weber' s objections against the naturalist as well spiritualizing (in a Hegelian way)views in social and historical sciences, we further our findings in Weber' s concepts of historical individuality and idealtype to make it more sound that Weber' s theories of social science is indispensable with another founding on the implication of personality.

作者:

田耕;

作者单位: 美国芝加哥大学社会学系;
期刊: 社会学研究
年.期:页码 2006.6:1-24
中图分类号:
文章编号:
关键词: 价值自由; 历史个体; 理想类型; 社会科学;
英文关键词:
项目基金:

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