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社会与人民:中国人类学的学术风格

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英文标题: Society and People: The Academic Style of Chinese Anthropology
摘要:

中国人类学近百年的发展,除与国际人类学研究共享的领域外,也形成了自己的研究特色、学术风格和思想资源,如家乡人类学、本土人类学与国家人类学。家乡人类学在和西方“异文化”研究的比较中发展起来,构成了本土人类学的重要组成部分;而在中国人类学本土化过程中发展起来的本土人类学则致力于描述中国社会文化的特殊性,解释中国社会文化发展的问题;新中国成立后,一系列由国家推动的调查研究活动把人类学的学术旨趣同现实的要求连接起来,形成了鲜明的以国家建设为核心的研究取向。引自西方的人类学学科与中国传统文化中的“格物”“致用”等思想在近代历史的特殊环境中相结合,产生以研究“内部他者”为重点的本土人类学和“迈向人民”的国家人类学两种传统。在新时代发展和融通人类学的这两种资源,是构建中国特色人类学学科体系、学术体系、话语体系的重要方向。

英文摘要:

In addition to common areas of anthropological research shared with the international academic community, the development of Chinese anthropology in the past century has formed its own research characteristics, academic style and ideological resources, such as home anthropology, native anthropology and national anthropology. Home anthropology, developed in comparison with the western tradition of studying “the other cultures”, constitutes an important part of native anthropology. While native anthropology has developed in the process of the localization of anthropology, committing to describing the peculiarities of Chinese societies and explaining the problems of social and cultural development in China. After the founding of PRC, a series of investigation and research activities promoted by the state connected the academic interest of anthropologists with the requirements of social reality, forming a distinct research orientation with national construction at the core. Anthropology, a discipline introduced from the West, has combined with traditional ideas of gewu and zhiyong in the modern history. It produced two traditions, i.e., native anthropology, which studies the “internal others”, and national anthropology, which orients “toward the people”. The development and integration of these resources in the new era point to an important direction for the construction of the disciplinary system, academic system and discourse system with Chinese characteristics.

作者: 麻国庆
作者单位: 中央民族大学民族学与社会学学院
期刊: 社会学研究
年.期:页码 2020.4:
中图分类号:
文章编号:
关键词: 家乡人类学;本土人类学;国家人类学
英文关键词:
项目基金:

本研究受2017年国家社会科学基金重大项目“中国岭南传统村落保护与利用研究”(17ZDA165)资助。

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