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历史社会学能化解学科之争吗?——基于西方学术史的结构主题模型分析

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英文标题: Can Historical Sociology Reduce Its Methodological Tension?—A Computational Analysis of Western Academic History
摘要:

历史社会学正在中国兴起,方法论争论也初显端倪。为了理解该争论,本文以“方法规范化”与“主题多样化”作为两种学术运动的概念范畴,检视西方历史社会学的四十年学术史,并对2642篇论文进行结构主题模型的内容分析。本文发现,“方法规范化”运动易产生方法共识,却导致研究主题固化,而“主题多样化”运动易扩展研究主题,却也可能动摇方法共识。两种运动的矛盾表明,历史社会学不能化解方法论争论,而是使之转移为内部紧张,推动自我更新。西方历史社会学正发起新一轮“方法规范化”运动,重拾“中层理论”,但却带来了知识碎片化的无意义感,可能引发新的危机。

英文摘要: Historical sociology introduces an important historical perspective into social sciences in China. However, its methodological orientation encounters controversies as whether it can reduce methodological differences between sociology and history. This study draws upon Thomas Kuhn’s idea of “scientific revolution” to explain the disciplinary trajectory of historical sociology in terms of the relationship between “academic movement” and “academic practice”. Based on a computational analysis of 2642 papers published in three major historical sociology journals from 1976 to 2018, this paper depicts the disciplinary evolution as a pendulum between “methodological standardization” and “topic pluralization”. Methodological standardization attempts to ground the disciplinary with a solid foundation in theory and method, but causes the narrowing of research topics. In reverse, topic pluralization attempts to expand the disciplinary boundaries by introducing broader topics, but threatens the previously accepted theoretical foundations. The tension between the two movements indicates the internal contradiction of historical sociology, which vitalizes the discipline. The ongoing methodological debate may cause a new wave of methodological standardization. This movement tends to ignore the “big questions” and grand theories, and may cause a crisis in historical sociology. The development of historical sociology in China should stay vigilance of this methodological pitfall.
作者: 郭台辉、周浥莽
作者单位: 云南大学民族政治研究院、中央四部委铸牢中华民族共同体意识研究基地(郭台辉);美国纽约州立大学奥尔巴尼分校社会学系(周浥莽)
期刊: 社会学研究
年.期:页码 2020.3:
中图分类号:
文章编号:
关键词: 历史社会学;方法论争论;学术史学术运动
英文关键词:
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