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人类学的自然法基础——弗雷泽对自然状态的阐释

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英文标题:

The Basis of Natural Law in Anthropology: James Frazer’s Explanation of the State of Nature

摘要: 以往研究者大多把弗雷泽当作进化论学者加以批判,而忽略了他在思想史上的意义。事实上,弗雷泽深受古典学和启蒙思想的影响,他以人类学的方式重新定义了社会和人性的自然法基础,为西方文明由传统进入现代提供了平稳的过渡方式。弗雷泽延续了梅因对18世纪自然权利理论的批判,他将考古学、历史学、民族志等新兴知识带入对自然状态的讨论中,突出了历史和习俗的价值。同时,他以认识论取代道德情感,将之作为人性论的基础,以为社会制度和道德伦理提供相对稳定的根基。重提弗雷泽的理论有助于反思以田野调查为主的人类学方法,突出人类学对基础理论的回应。
英文摘要: James Frazer is often criticized as an evolutional anthropologist, but ignored of his contribution to the intellectual history. In fact, Frazer is heavily influenced by classical studies and enlightenment thoughts. He gave his own explanation of the state of nature from an anthropological perspective. His research also put forward a more peaceful path for the transition from traditional to modern society. Frazer built on Henry Maine’s theory of the natural rights in the 18th century, and used knowledge from the newly emerged academic fields such as archaeology, historiography and ethnography to emphasize the value of history and customs. According to Frazer, social institutions and moral orders will be more stable if based on epistemology rather than morality. To reconsider Frazer’s theory can help us re-evaluate the method of fieldwork, and bring back the method of comparative studies in dealing with fundamental questions.
作者:

国曦今

作者单位: 北京大学社会学系
期刊: 社会学研究
年.期:页码 2019.2:171-194
中图分类号:
文章编号:
关键词: 弗雷泽;人类学;自然法;自然状态
英文关键词:
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