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固化还是流动?——当代中国阶层结构变迁四十年

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英文标题:

Solid or Fluid? Social Class Structure Transition Trends in Contemporary China during the Past 40 Years

摘要:

社会阶层结构变迁是整个社会变迁的核心过程之一。本文基于一个一般的阶层结构框架和全国性抽样调查数据,聚焦于阶层间代际流动,探讨了改革开放四十年来中国社会阶层结构的变迁。通过对阶层间代际流动趋势、机制、国际比较以及效应等四个方面的集中分析,本文提出:在工业化和体制转型的双重背景下,代际间的总流动率四十年来持续上升,而代际关联系数则呈N型变化,在经历了早期的上升和之后近二十年的持续下降后,最近十年间再次出现上升。本文认为,绩效主义原则和阶层再生产效应在改革过程中的相对强弱决定了代际关联系数的N型变化趋势。与本文选择的20个具有代表性的国家相比,中国的代际关联系数排名第17位,相对较低。而对阶层间代际流动的效应分析表明,一个开放、流动的(包括向下流动)社会能够通过提供平等的流动机会带来更加积极的社会态度。

英文摘要:

Social class structure transition is one of the core processes of social changes. Based on a general class structure framework and a national representative dataset, this paper focuses on the intergenerational social mobility between classes and further discusses the social class transition in contemporary China since the reform and opening up. Specifically, we examine the transition trend of intergenerational social mobility, mechanisms of social class structure transition, international comparison, and the effect of social mobility in China. We find that under the dual backgrounds of industrialization and market transition, the gross intergenerational mobility rate keeps increasing in the Past forty years, while the change of origin-destination is an N-shape trend. After experiencing an initial rise and a subsequent twenty-year decrease, the origin-destination association in China has rebounded during the past ten years. We argue that the relative strength of performancism and social class reproduction in the process of reform determines the N-shape transition trend of origin-destination association in China. Among all twenty countries we studied, China’s origin-destination association score ranks the 17th, which means the degree of origin-destination association in China is relatively low. The analysis of intergenerational mobility effect reveals that an open, fluid society can lead to more positive social attitudes by providing equal social mobility opportunities.

作者:

李路路、石磊、朱斌

作者单位: 中国人民大学社会学院
期刊: 社会学研究
年.期:页码 2018.6:1-34
中图分类号:
文章编号:
关键词: 阶层间代际流动;代际关联系数;国际比较;社会流动效应
英文关键词:
项目基金:

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