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反映社会还是塑造社会?——国外社会学讨论“政党—社会关系”的两条路径

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英文标题:

Society Reflected or Society Articulated?Two Approaches to the Party-Society Relationship in Overseas Sociological Literature

摘要: 政党与社会群体之间有着怎样的互动关系,是西方政党社会学关注的核心问题之一。在分析这一问题时,西方政党社会学大量吸收了马克思主义的思想资源,并形成了两种不同的视角:传统马克思主义视角认为“先有社会,后有政党”,政党是已成型的社会群体的表达和反映,这一视角在西方政党社会学中长期占据主流地位;最近几年涌现的新马克思主义视角则提出“先有政党,后有社会”,作为行动主体的“社会群体”恰恰是被政党的政治行动塑造成型的,这一视角为政党社会学打开了新的问题意识空间。这两条路径可以看作是将马克思、恩格斯关于经济基础与上层建筑之间辩证关系的论述各取一端。西方政党社会学的后续发展路径应该将这两条路径有机结合,回到马克思、恩格斯的总体性辩证思想之中。
英文摘要: One of the focal questions for the sociology of parties in the Western academia is how to conceptualize the interactive relationships between political parties and social groups. In addressing this question,the sociology of parties in the Western academia has drawn much of its intellectual resource from the Marxist tradition and proposed two distinct perspective. The traditional Marxist perspective asserts that social groups and cleavages are causally prior to political parties which form to express and reflect the existing social groups and cleavages. This perspective has long been dominant in the sociology of parties in the Western academia. The recently proposed neo-Marxist perspective,instead,argues that political parties can be causally prior to social groups and cleavages,which are produced and molded by political actions of parties. This perspective opens up new possibilities of inquiry for the sociology of parties. Each of these two approaches starts from one of the two poles embedded in the analysis of dialectical relationships between structure and superstructure as put forward by Marx and Engels. In the future,the sociology of parties in the Western academia would do well to synthesize the two approaches and firmly ground itself in Marx and Engels’ dialectics of totality.
作者:

张跃然

作者单位: 哈佛大学社会学系
期刊: 社会学研究
年.期:页码 2018.3:216-241
中图分类号:
文章编号:
关键词: 政党社会学;政党—社会关系;唯物史观;辩证思想;耦合
英文关键词:
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