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江村调查:文化自觉与社会科学的中国化

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英文标题:

Field Research in Jiangcun Village: Culture consciousness and sinicization of social sciences

摘要:

1936年费孝通在吴江开弦弓村进行的江村调查及在此基础上写成的《江村经济》一书,不仅实现了现代人类学对“文野之别”的历史跨越,也切实推进了社会学、人类学及整个社会科学的中国化进程。事实上,无论是对“文野之别”的跨越,还是对社会科学中国化的推动,都与费孝通晚年倡导但青年时代即逐渐养成的“文化自觉”意识休戚相关:就前者而言,成功地实现对自己生存其间的文明社会的洞悉,既有赖于对与汉民族相对应的其他弱小民族的实地考察,更有赖于对来自西方的现代社会科学理论的把握,这两者使得研究者能够相对抽身于自己生存其间的文化,将自己熟悉的场景置于客体的位置;而就后者而言,正是因为研究者对自已的文化有自知之明,他才能够自觉地站在主位立场,借用源自西方但研究者又深知其局限的理论,恰如其分地解释自己的社会。换言之,文化自觉保证了研究者从事研究时“进得来”和“出得去”,也赋予了他们在不同文化场景中相互切换,以“他山之石”雕琢中国之“玉”的学术潜能。

英文摘要: Fei’s research in Jiangcun Village has not only facilitated the historic transcendence over the civil-savage distinction in modern anthropology, but also advanced the sinicization of sociology, anthropology and social sciences in general. Both achievements are highly relevant to the “culture consciousness” that Fei developed at his early age and further advocated in his later years. In terms of the transcendence over the civil and the savage, Fei demonstrated an insight into the civilized society where he has lived, thanks to his study of ethnic minorities and his good command of modern social theories established by the western academia. These enabled him to detach from the culture of his own and locate familiar settings in the etic position. As for the sinicization of western social sciences, it was only possible because he well understood his own culture and took the emic stand to interpret his own society. Despite that he borrowed theories from the West, he was always well aware of their limitations. Culture consciousness developed by Fei endows researchers to switch between diverse cultural settings and contribute to Chinese research from western approaches.
作者:

周晓虹

作者单位: 南京大学社会学院
期刊: 社会学研究
年.期:页码 2017.1:1-23
中图分类号:
文章编号:
关键词: 费孝通;江村调查;文化自觉;社区研究;社会科学中国化
英文关键词:
项目基金:

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