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理想抑或常态:农地配置探索的世纪之摆——理解20世纪中国农地制度变迁史的一个视角

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英文标题:

A Century' s Swinging in The Rural Land Tenure System :A view of understanding the change of history of China' s Rural Land System in the 20th century

摘要:

本文通过重新审视20世纪以来有关中国农村土地配置的不同认识、政策主张及其实践效应,认为排除各种权力因素的作用,传统中国农地配置的不均主要是长期以来土地继承与土地交易自然积累的结果,这一结果有其问题与矛盾,也有历史效应与存在空间。但如何解决问题却涉及到对问题性质的定位。上个世纪20年代以后阶级理论的传入及其影响,让人们更多地以阶级理论的对立性来思考和观察问题,主张以阶级剥夺来平分土地。革命式的剥夺实现了土地配置的绝对平均,但从长远看却遗留下一系列问题。这些问题不仅体现于对土地进行集体化管理和经营所带来的低效益,也体现在废除大集体后以绝对平均为基础的低效率的土地分户经营。因此,农村改革的核心与实质就不仅是要重新还地权于农民,同时也是要重新建立一个有效益、有适度规模的农地配置与经营制度。由此我们发现,在经历了近一百年的选择与实践后,我们又不得不去重新面对20世纪上半叶有关土地问题的争论,而能否重新认识这些争论,不仅关系到大历史经验的厘清,更是当下的农地制度改革能否继续深化的前提。 

英文摘要:

In this paper , through re-examining the different perceptions , policy advocacy and the effect of practice about the China' s rural land tenure in the 20th century , the author figured out that uneven land tenure in traditional China was mainly as the result of a natural accumulation of the long-standing land inheritance and transactions, besides the effect of various power factors.This result has its own problems and contradictions, but also has its history effect and existence space .As for how to solve the problem , it lies on how to position the nature of the problem.The introduction of class theory and its impact after the 1920s made people think and observe issues more based on the theory of class antagonism and claim to share the land equally by depriving the landowner class . Revolutionary depriving of land from landowners achieved the goal of absolute average in land tenure , but it left behind a series of problems in a long term .Therefore , the core and essential of rural reform are not only to restore land rights to peasants, but also reestablish an effective and appropriate scale of rural land tenure and management system at the same time .

作者:

吴毅

作者单位: 华中科技大学社会学系;
期刊: 社会学研究
年.期:页码 2009.3:211-235
中图分类号: F321.1
文章编号:
关键词: 农地配置; 土地革命; 土地改革;
英文关键词:
项目基金:

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