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教育分流体制与中国的教育分层(1978-2008)

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英文标题:

The Keypoint School System, Tracking, and Educational Stratification in China, 1978 -2008

摘要:

已有关于中国教育分层的文献大多关注总体教育获得的阶层差异,而忽略了因重点学校制度和学轨制(tracking)所造成的教育机会不平等。通过分析CGSS2008数据,本文探讨了改革开放以来中国城乡居民在初中、高中和大学三个教育层次的升学路径差异及其影响因素。研究发现家庭社会经济地位变量(户籍、父亲的职业地位和父母亲教育程度)影响子女的升学路径。家庭社会经济地位越高的学生,越有可能进入重点学校,或更可能选择学术教育轨道而非职业教育轨道。另外,前一阶段在重点学校就读对获得下一阶段重点学校教育机会有重要的影响。本文的数据分析结果支持“有效维持不平等”(effectively maintained inequality)理论。作者认为,重点学校制度对我国教育公平问题甚至是整个社会的不平等问题的负面影响应引起足够的重视。

英文摘要:

Most previous studies on Chinese educational stratification focus mainly on quantitative inequality of educational attainment, while pay less attention to qualitative disparities in schooling derived from the keypoint school system and tracking. Analyzing data from the 2008 Chinese General Social Survey, this paper explores the path or tracking differences of schooling at junior high school, senior high school, and college levels for the Chinese residents between 1978 and 2008. It finds that family socio-economic status, which is measured by hukou status, father's ISEI, and parental educational attainment, has significant effects on children's schooling paths. Students from higher socio-economic status families are more likely to enter keypoint schools or to choose academic schooling track rather than vocational track. Moreover, being educated in keypoint schools in early stages has huge positive effects on entering keypoint schools for the following schooling stages. The findings provide evidence that the Effectively Maintained Inequality hypothesis has applicability to the Chinese case. The author argues that policy makers should pay more attention to the keypoint school system and its impacts on educational and social inequalities in China.

作者:

吴愈晓

作者单位: 南京大学社会学院社会学
期刊: 社会学研究
年.期:页码 2013.4:179-202
中图分类号: G40-052;C919
文章编号:
关键词: 重点学校制度 学轨制 有效维持不平等 教育获得
英文关键词:
项目基金:

 国家社会科学基金“十一五”规划2009年度教育学青年课题“现代教育对社会分层流动的影响研究”(批准号:CFA090096);教育部“新世纪优秀人才计划”(2011)经费资助

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