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The Fate of Community: Theoretical change from the era of Herder to the Present Age
???People in the contemporary era have to face a dilemma: The more you pursue community, the less likely to achieve it. The essence of this dilemma is the contradiction between security and freedom in contemporary society. To understand this tension, we must return to the early views of modernity. This paper examines the theoretical change on community from the era of Herder to the present age, in order to reveal the conceptual change of community. Overall, the concept of community in social theory has undergone a gradual “downgrading” process. In the view of Herder, community is a guiding principle above economy and society, which served as the highest form of life. In the view of Tnnies, community was reduced to the opposite of rational state and capitalistcivil society, and the society was predominant over community. From the Chicago School to contemporary theories, community downgraded further to a partial struggle under rational state and capitalistcivil society. The whole process can be summarized as changes in two steps of three patterns: the first step is from the “community as a guide principle” to “community vs. society”; the second step is from “community vs. society” to “community in society”. The change of patterns actually reflects the deepening of modernity and the increasing contradiction between security and freedom in human experience.???
|关键词：||赫尔德 共同体 理性国家 社会 降格|